What distinguishes Pure Electric Vehicles (BEV) from Internal Combustion Engines (ICE)?

In the landscape of transportation, the comparison between Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles needs to be addressed. This article delves into power sources, environmental impacts, economic factors, and future prospects of BEVs and ICEs. Whether you are a potential buyer, a curious observer, or an environmental advocate, this comprehensive guide aims to inform you about the automotive industry.

1. Understanding the Basics

1.1 Definition of BEVs (Battery Electric Vehicles)

It’s pretty simple: Electric cars, also known as BEVs or battery electric vehicles, run on electricity. They have electric motors that use power from batteries. The batteries in these vehicles are big and can be recharged by plugging them into a power source. When you drive a BEV, you're using clean energy from the batteries. This means you're not creating any smoke that can pollute the air.

There are a few differences when it comes to EVs:

1.2 Definition of ICEs (Internal Combustion Engines)

Cars that run on gasoline or diesel have engines called ICEs, or internal combustion engines. These engines burn fuel and mix it with air inside the engine. This creates a small explosion that pushes a part of the engine and makes the car move.

The ICE has been around for a long time and has gotten better over the years. Most cars, trucks, and buses have an ICE. ICE vehicles are known because they can travel long distances before needing more fuel, which makes them handy for long trips. You can find places to fill up your car with gasoline or diesel almost anywhere. Even though they can create pollution, ICE cars are still very common.

2. Power Source and Propulsion

2.1 Energy Source Comparison

The propulsion of ICE vehicles and BEVs is grounded in fundamentally different sources of energy, with each presenting unique advantages and trade-offs.

  • Chemical Energy: Both ICE vehicles and BEVs convert chemical energy into motion—ICEs through the combustion of hydrocarbons (gasoline/diesel), BEVs through battery-stored electricity.
  • Energy Density: ICEs leverage fuels with high energy density, leading to greater range (>600km per fill) versus BEVs, which are limited by lower energy density of batteries (<250km per charge).
  • Efficiency and Emissions: ICEs exhibit around 30% energy efficiency with significant greenhouse gas emissions, while BEVs offer up to 80% motor efficiency with zero tailpipe emissions.
  • Refuelling vs. Charging: ICE vehicles benefit from short refuelling times and a mature infrastructure. BEVs face longer charging times and less developed charging networks.
  • Space and Weight: Fuel tanks in ICEs are compact and light, whereas batteries in BEVs take up more space and add considerable weight, impacting design and dynamics.

2.2 Propulsion Mechanics

While both ICE vehicles and BEVs share the ultimate goal of movement, the underlying mechanics of their propulsion systems reveal a contrast in complexity and efficiency.

  • Conversion of Energy: ICE vehicles must convert the linear motion of pistons to rotational movement, introducing inefficiency. BEVs directly use the rotational movement of electric motors, enhancing efficiency.
  • Torque Delivery: ICEs require complex gear systems to handle power and torque across various speeds, with optimal torque at higher RPMs. BEVs deliver maximum torque instantaneously from zero RPM, simplifying transmission requirements.
  • Sound and Vibration: The combustion process in ICEs inherently produces noise and vibration, necessitating sound insulation. BEVs operate quietly but may amplify other noises like road hum.
  • Electromagnetic Fields: In ICEs, electromagnetic fields are transient. BEVs generate constant, stronger fields, requiring robust EMI shielding to protect sensitive electronics.
  • Maintenance: The mechanical complexity of ICEs leads to higher maintenance costs compared to BEVs, which have fewer moving parts and recover energy during braking, further reducing wear.

3. Environmental Impact

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3.1 Emissions

The transition from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) marks an important step in reducing automotive emissions. Unlike ICEs, BEVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, directly contributing to improved air quality. While ICE vehicles release carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter from their exhausts, the electric motors in BEVs offer a clean alternative by eliminating these harmful byproducts at the source. This stark contrast underpins the urgency in shifting towards electric mobility, especially in urban environments where vehicular emissions significantly impact public health and contribute to climate change.

3.2 Lifecycle Carbon Footprint

  • The lifecycle carbon footprint of vehicles encompasses emissions from production, operation, and disposal. According to the International Energy Agency, transportation is a major consumer of fossil fuels, with a significant CO2 footprint. A visualization of lifecycle emissions comparing BEVs, hybrids, and ICE vehicles based on the Polestar and Rivian’s Pathway Report reveals that, over a 16-year period covering 240,000 km, BEVs emit 39 metric tons of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e), hybrids emit 47 tCO2e, and ICE vehicles emit 55 tCO2e. This encompasses production, use phase emissions from fuel and electricity production, tailpipe emissions, maintenance, and post-consumer emissions at the end of life.
  • BEVs have higher production emissions than their counterparts due to the extraction and processing of raw materials for batteries. However, they have significantly lower use phase emissions. Decarbonizing the electricity grid and improving battery production sustainability are key to further reducing BEVs' lifecycle emissions. As we progress towards a carbon-neutral future, the adoption of electric mobility is paramount. Despite their cleaner profile, BEVs' environmental impact can still be optimized, particularly in stages like manufacturing and electricity production. The transition will require a holistic approach, addressing everything from cleaner energy sources to recycling and beyond.

3.3 Long-Term Climate Benefits

When considering the entire lifetime of vehicles, EVs are more climate-friendly. Though they initially have higher manufacturing emissions due to battery production, EVs compensate for these emissions within 18 months of driving. Over their lifespans, they outperform gasoline cars, equivalent to a vehicle achieving 37.43 km per liter.

3.4 Convenience and Accessibility

One of the advantages of EVs is the convenience of charging—at home, work, or at public stations. As the market grows, the infrastructure must expand to accommodate more public charging options. This includes investments by utilities in charging networks and support for renters and those without home charging capabilities.

4. Maintenance and Longevity

The maintenance regime and longevity of a vehicle are important in determining its lifetime value and reliability. ICE vehicles necessitate a comprehensive maintenance schedule, including regular oil changes, air filter replacements, and engine tune-ups. These requirements are due to their numerous moving parts, which are subject to wear and tear, ultimately impacting vehicle longevity if not properly maintained.

In contrast, EVs boast fewer moving components, which inherently reduces their maintenance needs. The absence of traditional engine oil, fewer fluids to replace, and less brake wear due to regenerative braking contribute to potentially lower lifetime maintenance costs. However, the longevity of an EV is heavily influenced by the lifespan of its battery pack, which degrades over time and use. While modern batteries are designed for extended life cycles, extreme conditions and improper charging habits can expedite wear, leading to reduced performance and range.

5. Economic Considerations

5.1 Initial Costs and Incentives

The initial purchase cost is a pivotal factor for car buyers. Germany's 2023 EV incentive program is designed to reduce this barrier. New electric and fuel-cell vehicles receive a federal grant of €4,500 for models under €40,000, and €3,000 for those between €40,000 and €65,000, with manufacturers contributing equally. The aim is to boost the adoption of greener vehicles by making them financially appealing through these incentives.

5.2 Fuel and Maintenance Costs Over Time

Electric vehicles are gaining traction as a cost-effective alternative to gasoline-powered cars (ICEs).

The real savings manifest in operating costs. University of Michigan research shows that EV maintenance costs are roughly 27% lower than those of ICE vehicles. EVs have fewer moving parts and require less frequent servicing. Additionally, the cost of "fueling" an EV is substantially less. In Germany, for instance, driving an EV costs about €3.92 per 100 kilometres, significantly lower than the €7.5 needed for a comparable ICE vehicle.

Depreciation is a factor many worry about with EVs. While the battery's condition is a concern, the lower maintenance and steady resale values counteract this. Kelley Blue Book notes that EVs retain about 50% of their value over five years, higher than the 38% for ICEs. Moreover, incentives not factored into the initial cost can skew perceived depreciation.

Insurance costs are marginally higher for EVs, around 4% more than ICEs according to the Consumer Federation of America. Yet, these are often balanced by the lower running costs.

6. Infrastructure and Accessibility

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6.1 Charging vs. Fueling Infrastructure

The availability of fueling and charging infrastructure is crucial for the adoption of respective vehicle types. Currently, the EV charging network is expanding to meet growing demands, with significant investments directed towards increasing the number of fast-charging stations. This infrastructure is essential to match the convenience offered by the extensive network of fueling stations for ICE vehicles.

6.2 Accessibility and Convenience

The transition to EVs introduces new habits for consumers, particularly in charging routines. While home charging offers ease of access, the public charging infrastructure has some catching up to do in terms of availability and speed. As the network grows and technology improves, these hurdles are expected to diminish, leading to greater convenience for EV users.

7. Future Prospects and Innovations

Anticipated advancements in BEV technology include longer-lasting batteries, quicker charging times, and improvements in energy density. New ideas and technologies could make electric cars cheaper and able to go farther without recharging. This means they'll be better for the environment and easier on your wallet.

As for traditional gas-powered cars, it's getting harder to predict how they'll fit into a world that's moving toward electric cars. Right now, they're common, but with new tech and environmental rules, we're likely to see more electric cars in the future. Gas cars might stick around in some places, but it looks like they'll become less popular over time.

8. Tips and Tricks for Understanding BEVs and ICEs

When exploring the world of automobiles, particularly the distinction between Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles, it's helpful to keep a few key points in mind:

Tip 1: Identifying Your Vehicle Needs

Before deciding between a BEV and an ICE vehicle, consider your driving habits and what you need from your vehicle. BEVs are ideal for city driving and shorter trips, while ICE vehicles still hold the advantage for long-distance travel due to the extensive refuelling infrastructure and longer range.

Trick 2: Maximizing BEV Efficiency

For BEV owners, optimizing your driving style can extend your vehicle's range. Use regenerative braking to your advantage and maintain steady speeds to conserve battery power. Planning your route to include charging stations and driving at non-peak times can also help maximize efficiency.

Tip 3: Understanding the Long-Term Benefits

While the initial cost of BEVs can be higher, consider the long-term economic benefits. Electric vehicles can offer significant savings on fuel and maintenance over time. Explore available incentives and calculate potential savings on running costs in your region to get a better idea of the total cost of ownership.

Trick 4: Embracing Technological Innovations

Stay informed about advancements in electric vehicle technology. New battery technologies are increasing range and reducing charging times, making BEVs more practical for a wider range of users. Consider investing in a home charging station if possible, as it adds convenience and can be more cost-effective in the long run.

Tip 5: Considering Environmental Impact

If reducing your carbon footprint is important to you, BEVs are the clear choice. Even when accounting for the production of the vehicle and the source of electricity, BEVs generally have a smaller environmental impact than ICE vehicles over their lifetime.

By keeping these tips and tricks in mind, you can make a more informed decision about which type of vehicle is right for you and how to make the most of its advantages while mitigating any downsides.


BEVs offer a promising future with their environmental benefits, lower maintenance costs, and evolving infrastructure. However, challenges like upfront costs, battery lifespan, and charging logistics remain. The advancements in technology and supportive policies are guiding us toward a greener horizon. BEVs and understanding their place alongside ICE vehicles can not only enrich our knowledge but also guide us in making informed decisions that benefit both the planet and our individual needs.


What sets BEVs apart from other electric vehicles like PHEVs and HEVs?

BEVs rely exclusively on batteries for power and require plugging in to recharge, whereas PHEVs have a combination of a battery-powered electric motor and a gasoline engine, and HEVs combine an electric motor with a gasoline engine but don't plug in, as they recharge through driving.

How do the energy sources of BEVs and ICE vehicles compare?

BEVs convert stored electrical energy from batteries into motion, while ICE vehicles burn hydrocarbons like gasoline or diesel to create the energy needed for movement.

What are the environmental advantages of using BEVs over ICE vehicles?

BEVs have zero tailpipe emissions, contributing to cleaner air quality, and over their lifecycle, they generally have a smaller carbon footprint compared to ICE vehicles.

Are BEVs more economical to maintain than ICE vehicles?

Yes, BEVs typically incur lower maintenance costs due to fewer moving parts, the absence of engine oil, and less brake wear thanks to regenerative braking.

What is the current state of the charging infrastructure for BEVs?

The charging infrastructure for BEVs is expanding, with investments aimed at increasing the availability and speed of charging, though it currently lags behind the well-established fueling infrastructure for ICE vehicles.

How will future innovations impact the viability of BEVs?

Advancements in battery technology, charging times, and energy density are expected to reduce costs, extend range, and improve the overall convenience and environmental impact of BEVs.

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